Household Solid Fuel Use Around the World

Household Solid Fuel Use

*Click on the image above for a more detailed, interactive map.


This Map shows the percentage of the total population that burn solid fuels in their households, primarily for cooking fuel. Solid fuels include coal or biomass fuels such as wood, charcoal, agricultural residues, and animal dung.

Worldwide, solid fuels are still the primary energy supply for many households, particularly rural poor households in developing countries. Combustion of solid fuels in traditional stoves causes high levels of indoor air pollution (IAP), emitting dangerous pollutants such as carbon monoxide and particulates. IAP from solid fuel use is therefore a serious health concern. Prolonged exposure to IAP can lead to acute lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Women and children are most susceptible due to household roles. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that nearly 2 million people, mostly women and children, die each year from illness caused by IAP.